|Title of the article||
PRIMARY EDUCATION IN LIFE OF VOLOGDA PROVINCE COUNTRYMEN IN THE SECOND HALF
Vorotnikova Natal'ya Sergeevna, Postgraduate student, Vologda State Pedagogical University (Vologda, 6 S.Orlova str.), NS_history@mail.ru
The article studies people's attitude to the process of education in the Vologda province in the second half of the XIX century – the beginning of the XX century. The article analyses the number of pupils, their social and sex-age structure and thus it considers the role of the primary education in the Vologda province. Methodology of research is based on the system approach according to which the process of primary education development in rural area is considered as an element of an integral system of social-economic development of Vologda province villages. The research reveals the types of schools and the dynamics of development thereof. The analysis of various types of schools determines the number of pupils, percentage of children of school age not attending schools. An important part of research is the analysis of distribution of schoolchildren in the districts of Vologda region according to their sex and age. Special attention is paid by the author to performance improvement of public education administrative bodies and peasants themselves, and to children education conditions improvement measures. The author refers to facts reflecting the attitude of countrymen to primary school education which was positively changing during the late XIX – early XX centuries. The study of the problem is based on the analysis of the archival materials and regulating and statistical documents. Practical importance consists in the possibility of using the research materials in the process of development of the Russian history courses, special courses of the History of Russian and Vologda region education. As a result of measures by local administrative bodies to attract children to schools the number of pupils increased, especially in district schools. Assessing the attitude of peasants to primary education, the author points out that during the second half of XIX – early XX century it was changing. In 1860–1870s the peasant treated schools with distrust considering education to be pointless. Since 1871, when authorities began to develop public education, the peasants began to realize its importance. With every year the percentage of dropped out pupils decreased, the number of advanced pupils increased. In 1890s the peasants applied their own efforts to establishment and arrangement of schools, while the Vologda region district authorities opened school libraries, arranged book storages and conducted public reading sessions.
Vologda province, Zemstvo (district) school, ministerial school, parochial school, reading and writing school, national education
1. Bibikova L. V. Istoricheskie, filosofskie, politicheskie i yuridicheskie nauki, kul'turologiya i iskusstvovedenie. Voprosy teorii i praktiki [Historical, philosophic, political and juridical sciences, culturology and art studies]. Tambov: Gramota, 2011, no. 1 (7), pp. 39–41.
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